History and Maimai west of the Lomami

Children balanga west with Salumu
Children 16 and under are half the population of Balanga West; but elders, though rare, define the community. (Here Leon with Balanga West telephone-admirers)

A Balanga genealogy sounds like a litany from Old Testament Genesis or First Chronicles:

The first ancestor of the village of Kandolo was Likulufe. Likulufe begat a first son Kandolo who begat Bokendi ; Bokendi begat Mohomo ; Mohomo begat Kefota, Kefota begat Lobanda Bosongo (Kandolo2), Lobanda Bosongo begat the present chief of Kembe, Adolphine Lobanda.

Yalombe 2011 with chef Kandolo
Kandola2 or Lobanda Bosongo, then chief of Kembe, when he came to listen to our community meeting in Yalombe in 2011.

As in the Old Testament a people are defined by their genealogy.
In Genesis 10 the generations are laid out that followed Noah: “These are the descendants of Japheth in their lands, with their own language, by their families, in their nations.”
And so it is among the Kembe whose chief’s village was Kandolo. They have their own language, a dialect different from the other ethnicities of Balanga West and different from those of Balanga East.

Child of hunters_Balanga West
A Kembe boy proudly carries back the blue monkey from a hunt with his big brother.

And they have their “lands”. The Kembe clan moved from one village site to another through their forests of Balanga West. Their past village sites or “tongos” : Kufa, Topotola, Lusinangombe, Kakoakakoko, Mingazi, Wenjwa, Hulangenda, Wanga and Kandolo. Kandolo means “sweet potato vines” and so you will know the “tongo”.

Vansina's Map of amount:quality of Social Science information for Central Africa
This map by the historian and anthropologist Jan Vansina1shows the four central African gaps in ethnographic information. TL2 is one of them. There is NO written ethnographic record for the area.

The elders know a much longer genealogy for Kembe than only that of the Kandolo village. It goes back to Loboto Kembe who first settled in what we now call Balanga West. Loboto’s ancestors lived in the northwest, they came up the Lomami River. When?? We can only count generations. Perhaps two hundred years ago?

Now the old chief of Kandolo, Lobanda Bosongo, and his wife Nyota Belunga are both dead. This is how it happened:

Vieux Kandolo mid 2017
femme de Kandolo mid 2017
Old Kandolo2 and his wife weeks before they died.

On Sept 10, 2017, old Kandolo 2, asked the child who brought his food.
“My wife, is she alright? Is she still with us?”
“No,” the child answered. “She died this morning.”
Old Kandolo began to mourn. In less than 24 hours he, too, was dead.

Old Kandolo had been a powerful man, but unusual for a chief, he had only one wife. As he lost strength he chose his youngest daughter (also unusual), Adolphine, to succeed him.

Chief of Kembe, daugher vieux Kandolo
Adolphine, the current Chief of the Kembe.

Kandolo and his wife left another powerful person, Liboke, the keeper of tradition for the Kembe people. Liboke is Kandolo’s grandson by an older son. He is a respected man among the adjacent ethnicities, as well: among the Balanga, the Ngombe and the associated Pygmies.

Liboke at his home
Liboke, foreground, is the keeper of tradition. A feared man, a man who manages magic and spells.

I remember them, vieux Kandolo and his wife, when we walked through Balanaga West in 2014. They were pleased to have our visit. Nyota was weeding a garden by the house. She stood, bent over, and felt her way with a stick towards us. How many years of experience with crops and their weeds to be able to work in her garden while essentially blind? Her husband too, had become very weak. He could not rise, but was cordial and welcoming, a model for any chief in a dynastic tradition.

Liste of armes returned_july 2016
Old Kandolo handed his gun over to the government in July 2016 before his death in September 2017.

Old Kandolo also kept an army rifle. The rifle certainly served in the fearsome MaiMai uprising out of Balanga West at the end of the 20th century. At that time Liboke (pictured above) was a principal MaiMai leader for the entire region. That uprising helped push the Rwandans out of DR Congo.

Gathered but still defiant
The Balanga West youth think of themselves as hunters and warriors. They were defiant, here in Bafundo, even when offering peace in July 2016.

Old Kandolo’s military rifle probably served again in early 2016 during Colonel Thom’s uprising. Thoms incited the men with the toxic warning that the PARK was coming to steal Balanga and Kembe forests and to forbid all hunting. We will never know how many boys and young men died in that recent uprising. We know the military buried one of their own near where he fell. Balanga boys were also seen to fall, but their bodies retrieved by their families.

Mungbere's military april
Military during their march to counter the uprising in Balanga West of early 2016.

But after that rebellion the Kembe, Balanga,Ngombe and Pygmy groups of Balanga West turned against Thoms: “Enough”; 136 men and boys marched to Bafundo in Balanga East to pledge their allegiance to the Congolese government and turn in their military arms. That was in July 2016.

The palabres at remise
Discussions in Bafundo before the military arms are handed over. Liboke on far left of elite Balanga West delegation.

Handing in of weapons
The rifles handed over in Bafundo, July 2016.

Was it the old people who prevailed? The youth are many fewer than the children, but still far more abundant than the elders. And the youth are mainly uneducated. Thoms, himself, can neither read nor write. This intellectual distance adds to the geographical distance isolating the peoples of Balanga West.

Liboke at remise of armes with Reddi
Liboke (left) and Thoms brother,Reddi, at the handing over of weapons.

Liboke remains peaceful on his land, an example to others. But now, only a year after seeking peace, Reddi has joined Thoms. They have reformed an outlaw band, and headed to the northeast, to the Mituku, also park buffer zone.

Dancing when weapons returned
Who, we wonder, among these men and boys who danced at the handing over of weapons, have now joined Thoms and Reddi for more elephant killing and banditry.

Now in Balanga West and amongst the Kembe we have built a permanent camp and developed relations with the chiefs. Adolphine held a month long mourning for her mother and father. It had just ended when I came over to Balanga West in October.

Crossing from Balanga east to Balanga west_october 17
We cross the Lomami from the Park (east) to Balanga West. In front of me is Olivier in charge of our community efforts in Balanga West.

The requests from Balanga West are small and reasonable:

Request: Allow us, of Balanga West to cross the park with bushmeat we hunt outside the park.
Response: Our TL2 project put in a “jeton” or token system that makes that possible.

Jeton system Balanga west
All bushmeat loads are detailed on a slip that is shown on the other side of the park.

Request: Build a permanent shelter at the 23 km halfway point across the park where our people carrying loads across can spend the night.
Response: We have built the shelter. Twice I have slept there.

Shelter at Bemanje on a rainy night
Our shelter at Bemanje stream, in the park, halfway between Balanga East and Balanga West.

Request: Loan us seed rice to plant – since during the year of Thom’s war all the rice was lost in neglected or burned fields. We now live off bananas and manioc.
Response: We are distributing rice this month of November, the final month for rice planting.

playing house in Balanga West
Little girls in Balanga West play “house” each with her own kitchen fire.

And where is Thoms?…He and Reddi took a dozen AK47s that were never handed over and about as many men. Perhaps some of these men have criminal records like Thoms –? They have moved out of Balanga West, crossed the park and moved north to the Miktuku. They are still in the buffer zone, certainly hunting elephants. Thoms’ s story is not over yet.

1 Vansina, Jan. 1990. Paths in the Rainforests. Toward a History of Political Tradition in Equatorial Africa. The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison,Wis.

Delcommune: Colonial Champion of the Lomami

Delcommune with hippos he killed on Lomami
In 1889, Delcommune killed these hippos on the Lomami just south of the rapids we call Badinga and he called Lissambo. Early European travelers on the Lomami fed their troops by killing hippos and elephants. 

The Lomami’s first advocate was the 19th century businessman, Alexandre Delcommune. He was more than an entrepreneur – he was also explorer and eventually military officer in Leopold II’s Force Publique.

Delcommune in Katanga in 1892
Delcommune (1892) is in the center with his hand at his distinctive sash.

You may never have heard of him. I only learned of him by chance when a street vendor of “antiques” came to our house in Kinshasa hoping to sell a yellowed copy of “Twenty Years of African Life” by A. Delcommune.

Even during his own time, he did not have the popular appeal of HM Stanley. Stanley’s first great exploit was to discover the course of the Congo River. Delcommune was in Boma, one of a handful of Europeans, to welcome Stanley in 1877 when he and his beleaguered column stumbled out to the estuary on the Atlantic after three years of harrowing adventure. At the time Delcommune was an ambitious young entrepreneur. Most of his life he worked in the vanguard of Congolese Company for Commerce and Industry (CCCI).

Large village on Lomami's bank
Delcommune found large villages only on the northern Lomami and south of Bene Kamba. Then as now the area that became park was unpopulated (photo 2017).

Delcommune’s first exploration had an important business component. Did a railroad make sense in Congo? – where was it needed? – would it pay for itself? On this trip, in 1889, he was the first to establish that the Lomami was the same river the German explorer, Hermann Wissmann had discovered far south in what became Katanga. The supposition at that time: Wissmann’s river flowed north-west into the Lubefu, a tributary of the Sankuru.

Roi des Belges
Steamboat, King of the Belgians, of Delcommune’s first explorations 1888-1889.

Delcommune explored up the Lubefu and realized it was too small and shallow to come from Wissmann’s river. Delcommune’s small steamboat later entered Lomami from the north. He was the first European after George Grenfell to do so, and he navigated the river more than 300 Km further south than Grenfell had done a few years earlier. Delcommune’s Lomami was the same as Wissmann’s north-flowing river of Katanga.

Delcommune was not as meticulous a scientist as Grenfell. Their respective maps show it.

TL2 carte 001
Delcommune's map of his explorations
Delcommune’s map (second) gives a generalized idea of where he went. Grenfell’s map (top) gives a detailed and accurate rendition of the rivers’ courses, bends and islands.

But Delcommune was a persistent explorer. He debunked mythical lakes and discovered the upper reaches of the Congo river in the Luapula River. He was also important to tracing the River Lukuga as flowing out of Lake Tanganyika and into the River Congo.

Despite the importance of his discoveries, Alexandre Delcommune was not a self-promoter or perhaps he just lacked the journalistic flare at which Stanley excelled. Less than a year after showing up in Boma, Stanley published “Through the Dark Continent” , 2 volumes, nearly 1000 pages about his just-ended exploits.

Delcommune’s story about his own explorations came out almost thirty years after the fact, at the insistence of others, with the help of others and less than a year before he died.

Lomami tributary
Delcommune was not indifferent to the beauty of the Lomami, but the short florid descriptions of vegetation and sunsets that punctuate the text were probably not his own, but added by “assistant” writers.  (photo C.Schenck, 2017)

Nevertheless, he opened the Lomami to the possibility of Belgian trade. The first Europeans to follow in Delcommune’s footsteps,however, were murdered by the Arabs and so began the Belgo-Arab War. Pierret, Hodister, among others, came up the Lomami to open posts and negotiate trade. They were all killed, some near the Lomami, and others as they approached RibaRiba, now Lokandu, an Arab post on the Congo River.

In Delcommune’s mind the Lomami was a part of the obvious route south and west through the Congo Free State. It was the obvious way to avoid the rapids above Stanley Falls (Kisangani).

One of Lomami's many bends
It is the rocky shallows and many bends, like this one, that ultimately make the Lomami a poor river for transportation (photo C. Schenck, 2017).

Observations he made show how in many ways the mid-Lomami basin has remained much the same over the last hundred and thirty years:

–South of Opala (then Yanga) there was almost no habitation until reaching BeneKamba (250 km as the crow flies). This is still true today and allowed for the creation of the Lomami National Park.

— After Delcommune specifically asked in 1887 if there were Pygmies (nains) at Bene Kamba, his hosts disappeared along a path and came back with a pygmy. This corroborates our observations that there are some Pygmies associated with the Balanga and Mbole, but they are scarce compared to the density of Pygmies in the Ituri Forest, further east.

Despite the importance of his discoveries along the Lomami, perhaps his greatest contribution to the Congo Free State, and eventually the Belgian Congo was made before he had started any of his explorations up the Congo:

In 1884 after almost 10 years in Boma, where he had married the daughter of an important chief, his local influence allowed him to sign treaties with traditional kings, much to the discomfiture of England and Portugal. As a result Belgium gained rights at the mouth of the Congo River that were recognized that same year at the Conference of Berlin where the colonial map of the continent was carved into existence by European powers.

Decommune at age of 21 in 1876
Delcommune, here 21 years old, first came to Boma at the Congo River’s estuary on the atlantic, as a young man.

But this event was not what Delcommune wrote about when he published the account of his commercial, military and exploratory successes in the Congo. Rather, he wrote in detail, how he rebuffed King Leopold II in 1895 after returning to Belgium from his Katanga exploration. When the king asked Delcommune to return as Inspecteur de l’État to the Congo Free State, Delcommune said he could not because of the atrocities committed for the forced collection of wild rubber in the name of the King. He ended the book with a plea for better health care and better education in the Belgian Congo.

References:
Gochet Alexis-Marie. 1896. Soldats et missionnaires au Congo; de 1891 à 1894. Desclée de Brouwer & Cie. Gallica, France.
Delcommune, Alex. 1922. Vingt années de Vie africaine, récits de voyages, d’aventures et d’exploration au Congo Belge 1874-1893 Tome Premier et Tome Second. Vve Ferdinand Larcier, 26-28 rue des Minimes, Bruxelles

Eight Months in the Forest Canopy

To be exact: Eight months spent watching a single forked branch, 17 meters (56 feet) above the ground in the Congo’s Lomami National Park.

Base of an Uapaca
The aerial roots is usually all we see of an Uapaca tree. The slash confirmed its identification.

My name is Daniel Alempijevic, a graduate student from Kate Detwiler’s Primatology lab at Florida Atlantic University. I lead a collaborative camera trap study with the TL2 Project.

Uapaca_detection_zone
A forked Uapaca branch was faithfully observed by “Euvgenia Cam” for 8 mohths. The camera is named after its donor.

In the Lomami River Basin, a diverse group of primates scour the canopy in search of fruits, insects, and palatable leaves. Each species has unique feeding strategies and tolerances that allow co-existence with other species. Sometimes they form mixed-species groups. Observing the natural behavior of monkeys from the ground in dense, closed canopy forests is daunting, so we use arboreal camera traps.

As part of a camera trap survey designed to detect Inoko (Cercopithecus dryas) in TL2, one camera recorded animal encounters throughout the fruiting period of a Uapaca heudelotii tree.

Uapaca_fruit
Some of the Uapaca fruit within the camera trap’s detection zone.

Since the camera was setup (Dec 3,2016) through mid-April, primates were making consistent but infrequent visits to the tree, averaging less than two primate detections per week (n=1.75). Then, over an 8-week period between April and June the frequency of detections per week greatly increased (n=9), with 14 primate detections during one week in May.

The reason for this spike in detections is clear; this was when the Uapaca fruits were ripe and all monkeys converged on it. The number of videos showing primates collecting and eating fruit show the same trend as the primate detection frequency. After this period of increased foraging, the primate detections decrease (n=2.4) through the remaining 5 weeks. During the 8-month period, 6 of the 8 diurnal primate species known to occur in this part of the forest were recorded; the elusive and sub-canopy dwelling Inoko, along with the bonobo, however, never came to that forked branch.


The 6 species of primates detected by the camera trap. The colobus is the only one that is mainly a leaf eater. Here the independent clips have been spliced together. Note the hornbill at the end of the video; they too are important seed dispersers.

This video from the Uapaca branch revealed an important aspect of tropical ecology, the relationship between tree and frugivore. Tropical forests are rich in fruits of various sizes, colors, and palatability. This variation in fruit is matched by a diverse frugivorous community of birds and mammals. Carbohydrate-rich fruits contain seeds that can survive digestion unscathed and sprout in a new location after passing through the animal. This is a primary means of dispersal for tropical tree species. Fruits are a patchy resource, both in space and in time. Fruit density is highest during the dry season, having matured during the rains.

Primate density at a site is dependent largely on availability of food. Monkeys disperse over large areas when fruits are not readily available, converging where fruit density is highest. The distribution and density of fruiting trees starts with their dispersal. The patterns of animal movement, responsible for much of the dispersal, can thereby trace an early blueprint of forest composition.

Highway Robbery

Blood-letting and blood-loyalty beside Lomami National Park.

(My observations in parentheses. I translate and include parts of several narratives)

O2 parc au pigeon1
Omo on a patrol to prohibit pigeon captures in the park.

OMO or O2 : Our trip was planned for Saturday the 4th March, but we did not take off until Sunday. I was making a monthly trip to pay salaries, distribute operating funds for the month, and collect field data at two of our field bases, ChombeKilima (CK) and Oluo.

Manaka on moto1
Manaka, our motorbike driver.

Manaka (my motorbike driver) and I quit Kindu at 9h and stopped in Dingi. I met with Benjamin, leader at the park guards’ training center. We shared a beer with Leon (of our TL2 project) who was returning from a mission in the north at Balanga Ouest.

Kasuku crossing
Kasuku river crossing

We continued at 1 PM. After crossing the Kasuku River we passed through Makoka village at about 4 PM. Deka, from the village of CK was on his motorcycle behind us. He drove so poorly, we almost let him pass for fear he might hit us from behind; but instead we stopped and I lectured him to maintain a safe distance. This turned out to be very fortunate.

Map_route taken on 5th march
Omo’s route on the 5th of March 2017.

Not more than 50 meters beyond, we came up from a wooded stream onto a short savanna patch. We slowed way down as the path was narrow and broken into eroded ridges.

We heard a loud bang whose impact threw us to the ground.

My first reaction was “a blown tire”. My body felt nothing. I got up to inspect the motorcycle, but Manaka began to flee. As I approached to see the tire I heard a voice cry in Swahili “They shot them!!”. It was Deka coming behind us. We’d been shot! I quickly turned to follow Manaka.

It was then I began to feel an incredible heaviness in my right leg and arm. When I reached Manaka my first thought was to see who did it. I said lets stay hidden in the grasses where we can see who comes forward. Manaka looked at me, but turned to flee towards the trees. It came to me that I was like someone bewitched, waiting to meet my death. I fled after Manaka and saw that his shirt was covered with blood. My arm and leg were very heavy and I could feel the pain rising – movement cost incredible determination. I refused to look.

We were near the small stream when we heard Deka calling us. I kept Manaka from answering instead we went slowly through the trees to try to see – was he alone? Was the attacker there? And Who would attack us, anyway? I could only think that it might be the family of the poacher recently killed by one of the eco-guards.
Who else could it be if not that family?

Deka was alone on the path calling for us, only women washing clothes were nearby. We came out of the trees. When the women saw Manaka covered in blood they fled. We now advanced with Deka, back towards the village of Makoka; that was our only hope for help.

Makoka_similar village
This near-by village is the size of Makoka.

I moved by little jumps, I could only put weight on my left leg. I could no longer move my right arm. Deka carried Manaka on his back, Manaka’s arms around Deka’s neck.

All of this in maybe 20 minutes from when the shotgun attack threw us down.

I got to the village first. I was in a state of anxious confusion; I suspected everyone. I did not want the villagers to see that I was wounded, but could not hide the limp. I put my hand in my pocket as blood was dripping down my fingers. Now it pooled in my shoe. I tried to walk upright.

Makoka meeting_pharmacie
A recent meeting in Makoka showing a building the size of the dispensary with writing on its wall.

I went straight to the so-called dispensary. There was no one competent, and no materials or useful medicine at all, even for simple first aid. I despaired. Deka then stumbled into the village, releasing Manaka next to me. I too slumped to the ground and the blood pooled around us. Villagers gathered.

Just then the groupement chief came up; the passenger on Deka’s motorbike had run ahead to alert him. He was surrounded by others…they decided to go straight back to the motorbike to see what they could find.

JA in forest clearing
Junior in forest clearing.

JUNIOR: I arrived in Chombe Kilima (CK) the 3rd of March, having walked across the park from Katopa camp. I had to work with the patrol teams from CK and Oluo then I would return to Kindu. I already had satellite communication (thuraya) with Omo in Kindu. I would return with him. He was coming to pay salaries in CK and Oluo and he was coming with a second moto to carry provisions for the teams. I would return on that moto.

Michel with Manaka's daughter
Photo of Michel with Manaka’s daughter. Manaka had befriended him and helped get him jobs with the TL2 project.

I was working with the notes of the patrol teams on Saturday the 4th of March when the moto-taximan we often used, Michel, arrived with the provisions on his motorcycle. I asked him where Omo and our project driver, Manaka, were…we expected them to come together. He assured me that they were behind, but that they would come this same Saturday. He, Michel, would be my driver on Monday the 6th. He dropped the load and left quickly. His family home was nearby.

Omo and Manaka did not come Saturday. I worked all day Sunday, the 5th of March with the teams. About 4:30 PM the batteries of our computers had no more charge. Because I had to finish the work with the teams before leaving the next day, I sent Maga to Makoka to recharge the batteries on a generator there. Michel had left his motorcycle at our compound. Maga took Michel’s little brother as his driver and took off immediately.

On the savanna before arriving at Makoka, Maga saw the project motorbike lying by the side of the road. He stopped and began calling, “Omo” “Manaka”, at the top of his voice.

Michel’s brother, also disturbed to see the motorbike abandoned at the side of the road offered an explanation “Maybe they went to help my brother. He has been hunting here all day.”

villagers coming on savanna
A large group of villagers from Makoka come out on the savanna.

Very soon a large group of villagers comes out of the trees, led by the chef de groupement. They tell Maga about the attack and that Omo and Manaka are already in Makoka, Manaka in serious condition. Maga immediately sent the village chief of Makoka back to me in Chombe Kilima to explain what happened and so that I could send a satellite message to Kindu. Maga, himself, returned on foot with the rest of the men to Makoka.

O2 at bafundo training with JAH
Earlier photo of Omo with John and several team leaders.

OMO: There was no medical help for us in Makoka. Nothing. We had to move ahead probably all the way to Kindu. We were surrounded with weeping people as though we had already died. People who knew us and people who hardly knew us. The mother of our worker, Kinois ,was wailing. The father of our occasional motorcycle taxi man, Michel, who had preceded us to Chombe Kilima cradled Manaka’s head on his lap and wept “my son’s friend, my son’s good friend.”

I wondered where I could find a motorcycle. Finally one came along the road from Dingi. Manaka had to get out first, his hemorrhage was terrible. The driver accepted to take him to Kindu and I found someone to sit behind  to hold him on the motorbike.

I needed to find another motorbike. Then I saw the chef de groupement return and he was with Maga and also our motorbike. I saw immediately that my pelican case was no longer on the moto…only a large bag of beans and my small sack with my clothes. It was only then that I understood that we were shot in order to steal our money – I had over 3000 dollars in the pelican case — but who ??

Maga in red pants_interrogation
Maga (red pants) assisting at an interrogation the next day, Junior in jacket next to him.

Maga helped me find someone to drive our motorbike and someone to steady me from behind, as I was weakening fast. It was at 6 PM that I too was evacuated in the direction of Dingi.

Within an hour and a half we had caught up with Manaka’s motorbike. We continued together. First problem was the Kasuku River crossing after dark. There was no one there to cross us; both dugout and paddles were hidden. Fortunately one of the boys transporting me had worked the crossing. With a flashlight they found the dugout but not the paddles. He used his plastic sandals to paddle us and motorbike across. By then 10:00 PM.

Guard Benjamin in village
Guard Benjamin in a village.

We met Benjamin, from the Dingi guard training camp. He was coming to help, the message of our attack had been sent. He turned around and we all got to the camp by about 11 PM. But their small dispensary had nothing helpful. Manaka was losing the most blood and was weak near unconsciousness…so the camp nurse administered a shot of vitamin K3 that they found in the village pharmacy.

There was no option; I was determined that we continue towards Kindu…another two or three hours…to get treated in a hospital. Towards one in the morning Benjamin gave us three eco-guards and a motorbike to continue to Kindu. At 5 km from Dingi we met Dr John Mupepa and TL2’s other chauffeur, Guylain. They were sent with basic medical supplies to give us emergency first aid.

We returned to the training camp. The electric generator worked all night. Dr John found four shotgun lead impacts on Manaka’s body. A superficial one on the right arm he could take out, but not the ones causing the heavy hemorrhage in his back and stomach. Nor could he extract the one in his right thigh. None of mine could be extracted. Two were to the knee, one near the elbow. Another in the lower arm and one to the thigh. He disinfected and bandaged all the wounds and put Manaka on much needed intravenous serum.

In pirogue on the 6th March morning
The rescue pirogue
Above the rescue dugout. Omo sat in a chair and Manaka lay on a mattress continuing intravenous serum.

The base in Kindu sent a dugout to Lokandu (five miles from Dingi, on the Lualaba river) to evacuate us the morning of 6 March. In Kindu we were transferred to the general hospital.

Hospital kin after first interventions
Picture of Omo and Manada after being transferred to Kinshasa where most of the extractions took place.

JUNIOR: Maga sent the chief of Makoka to give me the news. The little brother of Michel, who had reported Michel’s continuous presence at the savanna edge, was held as first informant. I sent a thuraya message immediately to our TL2 base in Kindu, we started to assess what 12 caliber shotguns were not in the village of CK. We knew who owned them. It was Longo who said that Michel had his shotgun and that he took it yesterday, Saturday – the same day he came from Kindu – in fact he must have gone straight to Longo’s on his arrival to CK.

We were still at Longo’s when Michel, himself, ran up. He asked me, “What’s going on? Why is everyone here?” As though he knew nothing. I also did not want to accuse him immediately. I said that Omo and Manaka had been attacked with a 12 caliber. He responded, “I can drive you to bring them help.”

capture_leading to gun
Michel led us to where he left the shotgun.

I ordered the guards to arrest him. And I asked where the shotgun was he had borrowed from Longo. “I left it in the savanna because I had to go see my father in Makoka who is sick.”

We had him take us to where he left the gun. There was a very recent odor of gun shot and it was loaded to fire again. It was then that he admitted, “Yes, it was me, Michel, who shot Omo and Manaka.” “Why did you do it?” “I wanted to take the money.”

capture_Michel,JA,chef groupement, Makoka
The group of us who arrested then followed Michel out on the savanna.The groupement chef on the far right, next to Junior. Michel in white undershirt.

(At this point the drama of the story should be over. The wounds are treated and the criminal arrested, tried and convicted. But that is not what happened. Why? We could call it personal greed, professional incompetence…)

(Michel whispered to one park guard, Ramazani, that he would tell him where the money was in exchange for allowing him to flee. Michel told him where the equivalent of about 1,300 dollars were, but the guard did not succeed in freeing him as Junior had doubled security by calling for help from the soldiers in Oluo. Later Michel revealed the deception, the guard was arrested, and that part of the money recovered)

capture_guard arrested
Guard Ramazani arrested.

(By the time all the interrogations were over, and the money stolen by the guard –which had first been stolen by Michel — was retrieved it was very late on Monday the 6th of March. Junior, Michel and the incriminated guard arrived at Dingi close to midnight. Junior decided to spend the night at the guard training center and continue with the prisoners to Kindu in the morning.)

Guard Benjamin returning from Katopa
Earlier photo of the Guard, Benjamin, walking the savanna on return from Katopa.

(Benjamin – ICCN head of the training center – took Michel off alone for his own private interrogation. Junior, exhausted, found a cot and slept. When finished, Benjamin apparently told a guard to bind Michel’s arms and legs and watch him all night.)

(In the morning, Michel had escaped and, of course, the rest of the money has never been found. To this day – and despite near-apprehensions – Michel is still on the loose. He is among his blood-brothers and uncles in villages of Maniema)

hospital_Manaka_May_fragile but able to laugh
Manaka in May at the Kinshasa hospital, fragile but able to laugh.

(Both Omo and Manaka were flown to Kinshasa for operations to remove the lead-shot. Omo is now back in Kindu and getting better day-by-day. Manaka never really recovered. He died in July.)

(We end this first sequel with photos. We hope that there is a final sequel soon.)

funeral_Manaka's wife and MM at coffin
Matthieu, TL2 program manager, with Manaka’s wife by the casket.

Matthieu’s tribute:
You drove me many places over several years and even now I can see where we passed together. Given your generosity and your hospitality, you were friend to everyone and everywhere. You were courageous and always available whenever anyone had need of you, early in the morning or late at night. You left us so soon, and we still need to have you with us.

funeral_when coffin put in hearse
As the casket is put in the hearse.

funeral_last goodbye
Final wave good-bye.

funeral_wake in Kindu
Mourning in Kindu, as in Kisangani, while the burial took place in Kinshasa.